Our study shows that Electronic Health Records facilitate collaboration through the systematic integration of patient data from different specialties, which results in a shared and comprehensive health record to which users can have simultaneous access independent of time and place. This promotes mutual understanding and enables health professionals to coordinate their activities and prevents the duplication of activities such as tests. At the focal hospital, the EHR served as a joint communication channel. This discouraged health professionals from continuing with their handwritten notes and their local health records, and promoted the use of shared data. The EHR also facilitates collaboration by providing the information necessary for joint clinical decision-making, which is especially important for the quality of care of chronic patients who are often treated by several medical specialists. The EHR also promotes hospital-wide shared working processes, which creates conditions necessary for collaboration.
Although supervisors may collect data and analyze the behaviors of supervisees, success in facilitating a supervisee's development may ultimately rest on the supervisor's skill in communicating effectively about these behaviors. While there are many resources that discuss interpersonal communication, McCrea and Brasseur (2003) briefly reviewed the literature in speech-language pathology on the interpersonal aspects of the supervisory process, citing Pickering (1979, 1984, 1987, 1990), Caracciolo and colleagues (1978), Crago (1987), Hagler, Casey, and DesRochers (1989), McCrea (1980), McCready and colleagues (1987, 1996), and Ghitter (1987). All of these researchers found a relationship between the interpersonal skills of supervisors and the clinical effectiveness of the supervisees. In their review of the literature, McCrea and Brasseur noted the importance of a supervisor's skill in communication. Adopting an effective communication style for each supervisee was shown to affect the supervisees' willingness to participate in conferences, share ideas and feelings, and positively change clinical behaviors. Ghitter (1987, as cited in McCrea & Brasseur, 2003) reported that when supervisees perceive high levels of unconditional positive regard, genuineness, empathic understanding, and concreteness, their clinical behaviors change in positive directions. 2b1af7f3a8