It is a continuing challenge to develop corrosion protection methods that will, ideally, prevent the detrimental effects of corrosion completely, thus, minimizing the material and operation costs. This would also provide a more reliable estimate of corrosion potentials for the entire life of the system. It is clear that corrosion is not only a material issue but also a system issue. A thorough understanding of the system will help to control corrosion. The critical design parameters and critical control points must be identified. They must be considered in the design of the plant or equipment so that the corrosion potential of the product can be controlled. For many successful corrosion control strategies, it has been shown that the most successful systems are the ones in which the majority of users are aware of the problem of corrosion and are willing to participate and invest to control it. In petroleum production, corrosion control is achieved by using corrosion-resistant materials, corrosion-resistant surface treatment of corrosive-resistant surfaces, corrosion-resistant operation of the plant, corrosion-resistant design of the plant, application of corrosion-resistant coatings, corrosion-resistant design of the coatings, corrosion-resistant operation of the coatings, application of corrosion-resistant fluids, corrosion-resistant design of the fluids, corrosion-resistant operation of the fluids and corrosion-resistant design of the fluids. As a base for corrosion prevention, any of these can be used to the advantage of the producer. However, the application of all of the above methods will not necessarily prevent corrosion. Corrosion prevention is best achieved by using all of the methods listed above.
The corrosion resistance of a steel underwater pipeline is a function of the types of surface damage that can occur in an underwater environment and the magnitudes of these surface damage. This paper reviews recent literature in this area and discusses important gaps in the current knowledge of corrosion-induced damage on underwater pipelines and their proposed mitigation strategies.
With respect to steel, the use of pre-galvanized reinforcing steel bars (RSB) in deep water frames is becoming increasingly common. The paper provides a comprehensive review of the state of the art in this technology, with a focus on aqueous and non-aqueous pre-treatment methods, as well as on the resulting corrosion performance. In addition, the paper examines the various types of pre-galvanized and non-galvanized corrosion protection coatings, and the methods of application (e.g., dipping, brushing, spraying, etc.).
LNG transport along with onshore processing represent additional markets where extreme conditions are encountered. The paper identifies areas where materials and corrosion engineering can provide value-added services. In this context, the paper provides an overview of the main unmet needs related to CRA design, materials, and corrosion control strategies in each application, and the estimated market value. 827ec27edc